With all the technology, we can finally have an electricity power plant on top of the house. All the required equipment, to setup a Solar PV System at top of your house or for acre-spread power station are as discussed further.
Solar panels are electronic devices that convert light energy of thesun into electricity. Used in satellites for decades, solar panels are now made viable economically for masses to adopt and use it. All the solar panels fit into three major categories:
Made from single silicon cells, Mono-panels are ideal for premium market that seek long-lasting power efficient PV system like solar farms.
Made from multiple silicon cells, poly-panels are ideal for residential setups and cost conducive applications.
Most ideal for specific applications only like electronic powering circuits, home-light applications, etc.
Moreover, the thin films have lost their space in PV systems and are preferably used in solar products like lamps, portable chargers etc. The mono and poly panels have widespread use and are getting more efficient with all the research and advancements each day.
Generally made of steel or aluminium, mounting structures are needed for panels’ installation as a support structure for following reasons:
Lightweight, cost-efficient and low or no maintenance structures are preferable.
There are three major types of mounting structures: Single pole, Rooftop Mounting/Double Pole, Tin Shade.
Easiest and straightforward type of solar installation.
Need a lot of un-used space.
Ideal for limited commercial and agricultural installations.
Used anywhere in yard, field, or residential rooftops.
Needs dedicated space.
The height can be raised to use the space below.
These mounting structures are ideal for slanting rooftops.A variety of construct designs options are available based on the roof material and type.
Weight balancing and roof strength are considerable parameters for choice of mounting construct.
Systems onunused flat roofs are ballasted at an optimal angle by using simple ballast structures.
These can be steel, aluminium or plastic and polymerized structures.
The type of mounting structure one should prefer for a given PV system moreover depends on the site of installation and its pre and post installation usage.
There are three major types of solar inverters: central inverters, power optimizer-based systems, and micro-inverters.
A single central inverter will efficiently convert the DC electricity produced by panels to AC electricity. In case of huge power plants, the panels are connected into string-sets to a string inverter, which are further connected to a single central inverter.
Central and string inverters are a least expensive inverter option.
A micro-inverter converts the electricity from DC to AC right at the panel. Which means, each panel has its own micro-inverter attached to it.
Since we need a micro-inverter with each panel, the costing is ought to be higher based on the PV system size. However, the prices are certainly decreasing with tech advancements and demand.
Power Optimized inverters working is similar to that of micro-inverters. The only difference is that they condition the DC electricity and send it to String or Central Inverter. It is a more cost-efficient option than micro-inverter.
The power optimizers are additional components for each panel apart from the string inverter. These are costliest of all the inverters but certainly worth for the system efficiency enhancement.
However, the efficiency and warranty should be key considerable parameters while choosing an optimal inverter for your solar system.
The electrical panel with switches and circuit breakers are used to protect all the electronic equipment against various electrical faults and hazards like:
The requirement may vary based on the PV system capacity. There might be PV designs wherein, we would just not need the system at all.
AC current flows through outer surface due to ‘Skin Effect’. AC cable needs Multi-stranded Copper or Aluminium Conductor bunch for their efficient flow of current.
Whereas DC current flows throughout the whole cross section diameter of conductor. So DC cable needs Single Strand.
The quantity of required cables may vary based on the inverter setup you choose for your PV system, as discussed before.
The use of meters in this case differs from State to State.
Some states may require only one meter that reads the ‘net’ energy consumed by the system owner.
However, few other states may require two meters – one to measure solar energy generation and the second to measure the units consumed from the utility grid.